Value add ultimately means paying less money on a long enough timeline
Very nice article, concur about the long term goal of the bioeconomy needs to be making things at a reduced cost. Traditional fermentation makes for complex downstream processing, which means high costs, high energy use, high co2 emissions. Not necessarily better for the planet. Enzymes with very high conversion are required to minimize the DSP. There aren’t enough of these commercially viable today, but I (admittedly biased) expect there to be a lot more on the future.